Convert Journal Articles to Audio Files on the Mac

A while ago, I wrote a post describing how to listen to PDF journal articles by converting them to Kindle format and using Kindle’s text-to-speech capability. This system helped me be productive on my long commute, but I recently discovered an even better solution. As it turns out, the Mac’s OS X comes with a pretty robust text-to-speech feature, and it’s remarkably easy to create audio files for playback on your computer or mobile devices.

Here’s how to do it:

  • First, download (or scan) a PDF of a journal article. Make sure that the text is selectable. If it’s not, you may need to run optical character recognition (OCR) on it. I use Adobe Acrobat, which I find pretty reliable. 
  • Open the PDF in Preview, and select all the text (Command-A).
  • Once the text is all selected, right-click (or Control-Click) on the text, find “Services,” and look for the item “Add to iTunes as Spoken Track.”

Ching 2011

  • When you click on that, you’ll see the following dialogue that allows you to choose one of the built-in voices and to name the file. I suggest sticking with the “Alex” voice.


  • Click “Continue,” and your Mac will begin converting the text to a spoken audio file. When it’s done, open iTunes and find the track. You can listen to it as is, but I recommend changing its designation from “music” to “audiobook.” To do that, right-click (Control-Click) on the file and choose “Get Info.” Under “Options,” find where it says “Media Kind,” and select “Audiobook.”


Now you can add the file to playlists and sync it to your favorite media device. I put files on my iPhone, and then play them over the bluetooth connection in my car. Also keep in mind that you can adjust the speed of the text-to-speech voice in System Preferences, under “Dictation & Speech.” I found that just a little faster than “normal” works well, but your mileage may vary.



Proposition 30 and California’s Future

Fellow Californians:

There’s a lot of money being spent to spread misinformation about Proposition 30. Please take the time to educate yourself about it before deciding how to vote. It boils down to a 0.25% increase in sales tax for four years and an income tax increase on people who make more than $250,000 a year (rich people, in other words).

What you won’t see in the voter information guide, though, is the human cost if we fail to pass this initiative. K-12 education will suffer the most, but a loss for Prop. 30 will also gut our already stressed higher ed. systems. Here’s how one writer over at the Huffington Post puts it:

If Prop 30 fails, both the University of California and California State University systems will get a $250 million cut. UC would likely increase tuition by a minimum of 20 percent to respond to the shortfall; CSU would likely raise tuition and admit 20,000 fewer students to respond to its own cut, according to reports. Community colleges would get another $338 million cut in the middle of the 2012-13 academic year, and faculty could expect more job losses and furloughs, not to mention a lack of a pay raise.

So, tuition will skyrocket, vital programs will be cut, and lots of teachers could lose their jobs. A college education will become an unattainable dream for many young Californians.

The thing is, we will all end up paying the costs for these people one way or another. Either we pass Prop. 30 and educate our kids to become productive members of our society, or we wait a few years and spend even *more* taxpayer money to care for (or incarcerate) those who fall through the ever-widening cracks.

I’ve said in the past that I’m not a big fan of California’s initiative system, but this one represents an important course correction. Our education system, from grade school through college, used to be the pride of the state, and California prospered because it understood the importance of investing in its own future. We’ve since lost our way, preferring to build prisons instead of human capital, but Prop. 30 would be an important move back in the right direction.




Kindle Reads You Journal Articles

I’ve got a pretty long commute to my job—about 85 miles each way. For quite a while now, I’ve used the text-to-speech feature on my (2nd generation) Kindle to listen to books on my commute. The mechanized voice may not be as pleasing as audiobooks read by an actor, but I don’t find that it bothers me, and its mispronunciations can even be entertaining (it says “fass-uh-book” instead of “Facebook,” for example). Overall, it’s been a relatively cheap way to keep my mind occupied on a long commute.

But “occupied” is not always the same thing as “productive,” and I’ve long wished I had some way to get actual work done while I’m driving. Since I’m an academic, part of my job is keeping up with what other scholars and researchers are saying in my field, and much of that comes in the form of journal article PDFs. It wasn’t until recently that I found out that you can have Kindle’s text-to-speech read journal articles to you, though the process is a bit clunky.

You can’t just plop a PDF onto your Kindle (well, you can, but text-to-speech won’t work on it). Instead, you have to convert it into the Kindle’s native format (.azw), which removes extraneous formatting and renders it readable by the device. Here’s a description of the process from

You can … send your personal documents via e-mail as attachments to [name] To have a document converted to Kindle format (.azw), the subject line should be “convert.” Kindle Personal Documents Service will attempt to deliver your personal documents to the e-mail address associated with the Amazon account to which the device is registered. You can use the e-mail to download the file to your computer and transfer it to your Kindle device using a USB connection.

So, first thing you’ll need is your “Send-to-Kindle” email address, which is probably your username + If you don’t know this, you can go to your “Your Account” page, click on “Manage Your Kindle,” then “Manage Your Devices.” You should see your “Send-to-Kindle Email Address” on that page.

Next, use that address as the recipient of an email message, and attach a PDF to it. Finally—and most important—be sure you type the word “convert” into the subject line. Click “Send.”

In a minute or two, you should receive an email from Amazon that your document is ready. Follow the links provided in that email, and download the document. It should be in the .azw format. Once the file is on your computer, hook up your Kindle using your USB cable. The Kindle should appear as a hard drive. Copy or move the file from your computer to the Kindle, and you’re done.

I can’t guarantee this will work with all journal article PDFs, but I’ve had a pretty good success rate with it so far. Articles with lots of charts and tables might be problematic, though—I’d be curious to hear other folks’ experiences with this. As always, your mileage may vary, but at least I know that my own mileage won’t feel as wasteful as it used to.

Video Clips from UC Davis Rally

Here are a couple of important moments from today’s Occupy UC Davis rally. The first is Nathan Brown, UC Davis English professor and author of this early response to the pepper-spraying incident:

The second is Chancellor Katehi’s eagerly awaited public response to what happened:

Nope, there’s nothing wrong with your Youtube connection; that’s all she said. I can’t speak for other people in the crowd, but I was hoping for something more than a weak apology and a vague promise to work at making things “better.” If there was a moment for her to try to restore confidence in her administration of the campus, and to avoid having to resign, that was it. And she blew it.

On “Shit My Students Write”

Apparently, it’s been around since last November, but I just learned about a site called “Shit My Students Write.” It’s a Tumblr site that posts bits of less-than-stellar student writing, ostensibly as “evidence of the true cost of educational funding cuts.” I have chosen not to include examples of these posts, for reasons that I hope will become clear, but you may want to take a moment to visit the site and get a sense of what’s there.

Back? Of course, there’s nothing especially new about this activity, except maybe the use of social media to accomplish it. Teachers have been mocking the efforts of their students since time immemorial. I taught at one university in which some instructors put up a “wall of shame” in the teachers’ staff room, and they posted whole student essays that were, for whatever reason, deemed risible. The department believed this was in bad taste, and had it removed.

I understand why teachers do this. I’ve stared down enough stacks of papers in my time to know how potentially crazy-making it is to grade student writing. You get tired. You get punchy. And then you run across some absurd gem a student has written that forces you either to laugh or cry. At that moment of choice between derision and despair, it’s probably better to laugh at it.

But there’s a difference between laughing to oneself and posting student writing in a public forum for everyone else to see. It’s a bit like getting drunk and posting a bunch of stuff to your Facebook page that, in the cold light of day, shouldn’t really seem all that funny. Or rather, in the case of “Shit My Students Write,” it isn’t funny enough to override the potential danger that a student might find their own writing posted there. Maybe some of them wouldn’t care, but then maybe some of them would.

How would that feel, to find out a teacher of yours has publicly posted something you wrote for the express purpose of mocking you? It’s as if Henry Higgins, not content with stuffing Eliza’s mouth full of marbles and making her “enunciate,” also paraded her through the streets of London and invited passersby to poke fun at her. I don’t think Pickering would have stood for it.

My Fair Lady is an apt analogy for another reason, and that’s the fact that sometimes student writing sucks (to the point of seeming funny) precisely because teachers are asking them to do something new and difficult. Some of the examples on “Shit My Students Write” are surely the result of intense ignorance or laziness, but others may very well be the result of an honest attempt to complete a difficult (or vague) assignment. Students are made vulnerable when we ask them to write, precisely because the gap between where they are and where we want them to be is so very obvious. It takes a certain amount of trust in the teacher, whether warranted or not, for them to turn in anything at all.

Do I think teachers who post (bad) student writing in public forums are monsters? Of course not. But I do think that fewer teachers would do it if they spent more time considering the implications of that act.

Are Our Schools Failing?

Our American school system is failing, right? You would think so, if you put much stock in international test scores on reading, math, and science. In the most recent set of tests, US children received mediocre scores. You would also think so, if you relied on President Obama’s latest state of the union address, in which it is made clear that he and his administration puts a lot of stock in said tests.

But as Yong Zhao and Diane Ravitch point out, the fact that US children aren’t acing international standardized tests isn’t an occasion for panic. Or rather, it’s kind of ridiculous to panic over our performance on those tests, since we’ve been performing about the same on them for the past 50 years. If, as the current administration suggests, there’s a relationship between performance on these tests and prosperity, then why didn’t our economy collapse decades ago? As Ravitch puts it, “there is no logical connection between international test scores and the success of our economy. Our scores have been poor to middling for 50 years, yet we have the greatest economy in the world.”

In other words, US performance on international tests is no cause for alarm. However, that’s not to say everything is fine with our schools. In fact, it’s possible that we are destroying the very things that made us the “greatest economy in the world” in our misguided attempts to raise test scores. Again, Ravitch:

Instead of promoting innovation, creativity and imagination, the current obsession with raising test scores discourages these things. Students are learning to pick the right answer and being penalized for thinking differently. Subjects that spark students’ imagination, like the arts, are being squeezed out of the school week. And some districts plan to develop standardized tests for all subjects, which are guaranteed to do damage to students’ ability to think creatively.

So, the deep, tragic irony is this: What makes America great is its innovation, creativity, and imagination, and yet, in the name of “keeping up” internationally, we’re moving to destroy these very qualities by endlessly testing and retesting our children.

In other words, we’re going the wrong way. With that in mind, here’s an illustrative story, recounted by Yong Zhao:

The king of the state of Wei intends to attack its neighboring state of Zhao. Upon hearing the news, Ji Liang, counselor to the king rushes to see him. “Your Majesty, on my way here, I met a man on a chariot pointed to the north,” Ji Liang tells the King, “and he told me that he was going to visit Chu.

“But Chu is in the south, why are you headed north?” I asked.

“Oh, no worry, my horses are very strong,” he told me.

“But you should be headed south,” I told him again.

“Not to worry, I have plenty of money,” he was not concerned.

“But still you are headed the wrong direction,” I pointed out yet again.

“I have hired a very skillful driver,” was this man’s reply.

“I worry, your majesty, that the better equipped this man was,” Ji Liang says to the King, “the farther away he would be from his destination.”  “You want to be a great king and win respect from all people,” Ji Liang concludes, “You can certainly rely on our strong nation and excellent army to invade Zhao and expand our territory. But I am afraid the more you use force, the farther away you will be from your wishes.”